NABARD Grade A Syllabus 2021: for Phase I & Phase II

NABARD Grade A Syllabus 2021: The National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) has released an advertisement for NABARD Recruitment 2021 for Grade A and Grade B on 15th July 2021. All those students who are preparing for the banking exam have a good opportunity through the NABARD Grade A recruitment. So, today in this article we are here with the NABARD Grade A syllabus and exam pattern 2021 which will help the students informing up their preparations.

NABARD Recruitment 2021: Important Dates

Candidates who are going to fill the online application form of NABARD recruitment 2021 for Grade A, B must check all the important events related to the recruitment. Candidates can check the same from the table mentioned below.

Name of the RecruitmentRecruitment to the post of Officers in Grade A (RDBS)
Conducted byNational Bank of Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD)
Post nameAssistant Manager in Grade A
Selection processPreliminary exam, mains exam, and Interview
Exam levelNational
Exam FrequencyOnce a year
Exam modeOnline
Exam durationPrelims – 120 minutesMains: Paper I – 1 ½ hrsPaper II – 1 ½ hrs for Paper II
Application feesRs 800 for General Category and Rs 150 for SC/ ST/ PWBD
Exam helpdesk number022-26539895/96/99
Exam websitenabard.org/careers
NABARD Grade A Apply Online 2021 Begins17th July 2021
NABARD Grade A Apply Online Last Date07 August 2021
NABARD Grade A Admit Card 2021Will Update Soon
NABARD Grade-A Exam Date 2021 (Prelims)Will Update Soon

NABARD Grade A Syllabus 2021- Phase I & Phase II Exams

Now the NABARD Grade-A Exam is for recruitment for the post of Assistant Managers is conducted in three phases.

1. Phase-1 – Preliminary Examination (Online Exam) – 200 Marks

2. Phase-2 – Main Examination will be online and will be a mix of MCQ and descriptive patterns. – 200 Marks

3. Phase-3 – Interview – 25 marks

NABARD Grade-A Exam Pattern – Phase-1

It is an objective online exam comprising of seven sections The total marks for this phase of the examination is 200. There is a sectional cut-off as well as an overall cut-off in this phase. This is a qualifying stage and marks obtained by the candidate are not counted in the subsequent phases.

Name of SectionMarks Allotted
Quantitative Aptitude20
Reasoning Ability20
English Language40
Computer Knowledge20
General Awareness20
Economics & Social Issues40
Agriculture & Rural Development40
Total Marks200

NABARD Grade A Syllabus 2021- Phase-1 (Prelims)

» NABARD Grade A Syllabus 2021 – Quantitative Aptitude

Data InterpretationQuadratic Equations
Number SeriesSimplification/Approximation
Profit & LossSI & CI Interest
Data SufficiencyPartnerships & Discounts
Ratio and ProportionProblems on Ages
MensurationPercentage

NABARD Grade A Syllabus 2021 – Reasoning

Puzzles (Seating arrangement)Linear seating arrangement (floor-based)
SyllogismData sufficiency
Statement based questions (Verbal Reasoning)Inequality
Miscellaneous QuestionsInput-Output
Blood relationsCoding-Decoding
Series completionOrder and Ranking

NABARD Grade A Syllabus 2021 – English Langauge

Reading comprehension,Cloze test,
Sentence improvement,Spotting the errors,
Fill in the blanks,Sentence rearrangement,
One word out,Fillers- Single/ Double,
Idioms and Phrases,Vocabulary-based questions.

NABARD Grade A Syllabus 2021 – General Awareness

Current Affairs (Agriculture Focused),Banking Awareness and Economy (Agriculture Focused),
Agricultural Insurance,Important people in the news,
Sports News,Appointments

NABARD Grade A Syllabus 2021 – Computer Knowledge

Networking,Input-output devices,
DBMS,MS Office,
Internet,History of computer & generations,
Abbreviations,Keyboard Shortcuts,
Computer Terminology,Operating system

NABARD Grade A Syllabus 2021 – Agriculture and Rural Development (ARD)

Agriculture,Agronomy,
Classification of field crops,Factors affecting crop production,
Agro-Climatic Zones,Cropping Systems,
Problems of dryland agriculture,Seed production,
Seed processing,Seed village,
Meteorology,Soil and Water Conservation,
Water Resource,Farm and Agri Engineering,
Plantation & Horticulture,Animal Husbandry,
Fisheries,Forestry,
Ecology and Climate Change,Present Scenario of Indian Agriculture and Allied activities,
Rural Development,Rural population in India,
Panchayati Raj Institutions.

NABARD Grade A Syllabus 2021 – Economic and Social Issues (ESI)

Nature of Indian Economy,Structural and Institutional features,
Economic underdevelopment,Opening up the Indian Economy,
Globalisation, Economic,Reforms in India– Privatisation,
Inflation,Employment Generation in India – Rural and Urban,
Measurement of Poverty – Poverty Alleviation Programmes of the Government,Population Trends – Population, Growth and Economic Development – Population Policy in India,
Agriculture Industry,Rural banking and financial institutions in India,
Reforms in Banking/ Financial sector,Globalization of Economy,
Social Structure in India,Education,
Social Justice.

NABARD Grade A Exam Pattern – Phase 2 

NABARD Grade A-Main Examination (Phase II) will be conducted online and will be a mix of MCQ and descriptive patterns.

Mains Exam Pattern:

NaturePaperMarksTime
DescriptivePaper I: General English1001.5 Hours
ObjectivePaper-II: For General Post – Economic & Social Issues; Agriculture and Rural Development1001.5 Hours
ObjectivePaper-II: For all other Posts – Related to the discipline of the post1001.5 Hours

Paper-I – General English: (Descriptive – online through the keyboard). The paper will have descriptive questions carrying 100 marks. Duration: 1 ½ hrs


The paper on English shall be framed in a manner to assess the writing skills including expressions and understanding of the topic. The analytical and drafting abilities of the candidate shall be assessed through the Descriptive Paper on General English comprising

  1. Essay writing,
  2. Comprehension,
  3. Report Writing,
  4. Paragraph Writing & Letter Writing.

Note Essay (40 Marks), Precis (20 Marks), Questions on the Precis para (20 Marks), Report / Letter Writing (20 Marks).

Paper-II (MCQ):-

  1. Economic & Social Issues
  2. Agriculture & Rural Development (with focus on rural India)

NABARD Grade A Syllabus 2021- Phase-2 (Mains)

» NABARD Grade A Syllabus 2021- Topics under Economic & Social Issues

Nature of Indian EconomySocial Structure in India
Structural and Institutional featuresMulticulturalism
Economic underdevelopmentDemographic trends
Opening up the Indian Economy – GlobalisationUrbanization and Migration
Economic Reforms in India – PrivatisationGender Issues
Inflation – Trends in Inflation & their Impact on National Economy and Individual IncomeJoint family system – Social Infrastructure
Poverty Alleviation and Employment Generation in India – Rural and UrbanEducation – Health and Environment
Measurement of PovertyEducation – Status & System of Education
Poverty Alleviation Programmes of the GovernmentSocio-Economic Problems associated with Illiteracy
Population Trends – Population Growth and Economic Development – Population Policy in IndiaEducational relevance and educational wastage
Agriculture – Characteristics / Status – Technical and Institutional changes in Indian AgricultureEducational Policy for India
– Agricultural performance – Issues in Food Security in India – Non-Institutional and Institutional Agencies in rural creditSocial Justice: Problems of scheduled castes and scheduled tribes
Industry – Industrial and Labour PolicySocio-economic programmes for scheduled castes and scheduled tribes and other backward classes
Industrial performance – Regional Imbalance in India’s Industrial Development – – Public Sector EnterprisesPositive Discrimination in favor of the underprivileged
Rural banking and financial institutions in IndiaSocial Movements
Reforms in Banking/ Financial sectorIndian Political Systems
Globalization of EconomyHuman Development
Role of International Funding Institutions – IMF & World Bank –Current Affairs related to Economy
WTO – Regional Economic Cooperation WTO – Regional Economic Co-operationCurrent Affairs related to Social Issues

NABARD Grade A Syllabus 2021 – Topics under Agriculture & Rural Development (ARD)

Agriculture: Definition, Meaning and its branchesAgronomy: Definition, Meaning, and Scope of agronomy
Classification of field cropsFactors affecting crop production
Cropping Systems: Definition and types of cropping systemsAgro-Climatic Zones
Seed production, seed processing, seed villageProblems of dryland agriculture
Precision FarmingMeteorology: Weather parameters, crop-weather advisory
Organic farmingSystem of Crop Intensification

NABARD Grade A Syllabus 2021 – Other Important Topics under ARD

Other Important TopicsDescriptions of the Topics
Soil and Water ConservationMajor soil types,
soil fertility,
fertilizers,
soil erosion,
soil conservation,
watershed management
Water ResourceIrrigation Management: types of irrigation, sources of irrigation,
crop-water requirement,
command area development,
water conservation techniques,
micro-irrigation,
irrigation pumps,
major, medium, and minor irrigation.
Farm and Agri- EngineeringFarm Machinery and Power,
Sources of power on the farm- human, animal, mechanical, electrical, wind, solar, and biomass,
biofuels,
water harvesting structures,
farm ponds,
watershed management,
Agro-Processing,
Controlled and modified storage, perishable food storage, godowns, bins, and grain silos.
Plantation & HorticultureDefinition, meaning, and its branches.
Agronomic practices and production technology of various plantation and horticulture crops.
Post-harvest management,
value and supply chain management of Plantation and Horticulture crops.
Animal HusbandryFarm animals and their role in the Indian economy,
Animal husbandry methods in India,
common terms pertaining to different species of livestock,
Utility classification of breeds of cattle.
Introduction to common feeds and fodders, their classification, and utility.
Introduction to the poultry industry in India (past, present, and future status),
Common terms pertaining to poultry production and management.
Concept of mixed farming and its relevance to socio-economic conditions of farmers in India.
Complimentary and obligatory nature of livestock and poultry production with that of agricultural farming.
FisheriesFisheries resources,
management and exploitation – freshwater, brackish water, and marine;
Aquaculture- Inland and marine;
biotechnology;
post-harvest technology.
Importance of fisheries in India.
Common terms pertaining to fish production.
ForestryBasic concepts of Forest and Forestry.
Principles of silviculture, forest mensuration, forest management, and forest economics.
Concepts of social forestry, agroforestry, joint forest management.
Forest policy and legislation in India, India State of Forest Report 2015.
Recent developments under the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change.
Agriculture ExtensionsIts importance and role,
methods of evaluation of extension programmes,
Role of Krishi Vigyan Kendra’s (KVK) in the dissemination of Agricultural technologies.
Ecology and Climate ChangeEcology and its relevance to man, natural resources, their sustainable management, and conservation.
Causes of climate change, GreenHouse Gases (GHG), major GHG emitting countries, climate analysis, distinguish between adaptation and mitigation, climate change impact on agriculture and rural livelihood, carbon credit, IPCC, UNFCCC, CoP meetings, funding mechanisms for climate change projects, initiatives by Govt of India, NAPCC, SAPCC, INDC.
Ecology and its relevance to man, natural resources, their sustainable management, and conservation. Causes of climate change, GreenHouse Gases (GHG), major GHG emitting countries, climate analysis, distinguish between adaptation and mitigation, climate change impact on agriculture and rural livelihood, carbon credit, IPCC, UNFCCC, CoP meetings, funding mechanisms for climate change projects, initiatives by Govt of India, NAPCC, SAPCC, INDC.
Present Scenario of Indian Agriculture and Allied activitiesRecent trends, major challenges in agriculture measures to enhance the viability of agriculture.
Factors of Production in agriculture;
Agricultural Finance and Marketing;
Impact of Globalization on Indian Agriculture and issues of Food Security;
Concept and Types of Farm Management.

NABARD Grade A Syllabus 2021 – Descriptive Examination

I. Animal Husbandry 

» Forage Production:
Soils, soil fertility and fertilizers, irrigation methods and practices, agronomic practices of fodder crops, crop rotations and intensity, grasses and grasslands, silvopastoral systems, silage, and haymaking.

»  Animal Genetics and Breeding:
The basic concept of the gene, laws of inheritance, linkage maps, sex determination, chromosomal aberration, gene mutation, systems of breeding, mating systems, heritability, repeatability, and selection in animal breeding, size index, population genetics, gene type, and phenotypic variation.

» Physiology of Reproduction and Lactation:
Male and female reproductive systems, spermato-genesis, oestrous cycle, symptoms of heat, semen collection, evaluation and preservation, artificial insemination, fertilization and embryo transfer, pregnancy and lactation, the structure of mammary gland, milk synthesis, and milk ejection.

» Animal Nutrition: 
Composition of the animal body, metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins, macro and microelements in nutrition, vitamins and hormones in nutrition, digestion, nutritive value, nutritional requirements, rumen metabolism, calf feeding, feed formulation and feeding patterns utilization of crop residues and industrial byproducts.

» Animal Health: 
Morphology, reproduction, life history, and mode of infection of the livestock parasites – Tryonasoma, Babesis, Coccidia, Schistosoma, Trichomonas, Liver Flukes. Life history of insects such as flies, lice, ticks, and mites and their importance in livestock farming. Major diseases of livestock, preventive and curative measures for their
control.

» Dairy Management and Economics:
Principles of management of farm and labour, various classes of farm stock, sanitation in dairy farm and water, disposal of sewage and clean milk production, management functions, factors affecting farm efficiency, farm planning, and budgeting, resource allocation, economic consideration of herd size, milk production, cost of inputs, labour efficiency.

» Dairy Science: 

  • Composition of milk and factors affecting its legal standards for milk in India, physical properties, and nutrition value of milk. Chemistry of lipids, protein, and lactose, vitamins in milk, and mineral balance.
  • Type of micro-organisms in milk and their morphological characteristics, milk-borne diseases. Hygienic milk production, growth of bacteria in milk, milk fermentation, bacteriological grading in milk, indigenous milk products –
    manufacturing process, chemical composition, and microbiology of products like khoa, burfi, channa, paneer, shrikhand.
  • Western milk products – Manufacturing process of products like skim milk / whole milk powder, cheese, ghee, table butter, baby food, ice cream. Chemical composition of various products and fermented milk.
  • Variation in milk composition in relation to species, storage and heat treatment, bacteriology of starter cultures, fermented milk, condensed milk, and dried milk.
  • Milk procurement methods, price fixation, and marketing of milk and milk products.

» Poultry Production:
Breeds of poultry – genetic principles – selection methods – mating systems – economic traits – poultry production systems and management of feeding, disease control, and marketing of poultry products – other species – quails, ducks, and guinea fowl.

» Other Species of Livestock (Sheep, Goat, Pig, and Rabbit):
Important breeds – production systems, management – feeding – disease control – marketing.

» Meat and Meat Products: 
Production of meat – composition, and characteristics of good meat – slaughterhouses meat inspection – preservation of meat – meat by-products and its utilization.


II. CHARTERED ACCOUNTANT

1. FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING

1.1 Meaning; Objectives; Basic Accounting; Principles, Concepts, and Conventions; Limitations of Financial Accounting

1.2 Preparation of Financial Statements – Nature of Financial Statements; Capital and Revenue Expenditure; Trading Account; Profit and Loss Appropriation Account and Balance Sheet; Limitation of Financial Statements

1.3 Analysis and Interpretation of Financial Statements – Tools of Financials Statements analysis; Ratio Analysis – different types of ratios; Advantages and Limitation of ratio analysis.

1.4 Depreciation: Reserves and Provisions – Meaning; Need for providing Depreciation; Methods of providing depreciation; Provisions and Reserves; Choice of Methods; Objectives of Depreciation Policy.

1.5 Inventory Valuation: Nature and Importance of Inventory Valuation; Types of Inventory Systems; Methods of Inventory valuation; choice of Method.

1.6 Developments in Accounting – Interim Reporting – Segment Reporting – Value – added statement – Corporate Social Reporting – Human Resource Accounting – Accounting for Intangible Assets – Accounting for Financial
Instruments – Environmental Accounting – Inflation Accounting.

1.7 Statement of Sources and Application of Funds – Meaning of Funds, Distinction between Funds and Cash; Preparation of Fund Flow Statement; Analysis of flow of funds; Utility of Fund Flow Statement; Preparation of cash
flow statement; Utility of cash Flow Statement.

1.8 Preparation of Final Accounts of Banking, Insurance Companies – Basel III & Prudential Norms like Capital Adequacy Ratio, Non-Performing Assets – Provisions therefore for Banks and Financial Institutions.


2. MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING

2.1 Meaning and scope of Management Accounting; Financial Accounting Vs.Management Accounting; Role of Management Accounting; Function and Position of Controller.

2.2 Variable Costing – Fixed costs and Variable Costs; Distinctions between variable costing and absorption costing; application of variables costing as a technique; Differential costing and decision making.

2.3 Marginal costing – Cost volume profit analysis, Profit Planning, Break-even analysis, Break-even Point, and Break-even chart.

2.4 Methods of costing – job costing – Contract costing – Batch Costing – Process costing – Unit costing – Operation costing and Operating costing.

2.5 Cost of capital – Cost of different sources of finance –Weighted average cost of capital – Marginal cost of capital – Concepts of operating and financial leverage – Capital Structure patterns – Designing optimum capital structure – Different sources of finance – Long, medium, and short term finance.

2.6 Money market and its operations

2.7 Business valuations – Mergers, Acquisitions, and corporate restructuring

2.8 Budgetary control – Meaning and objectives; operation of Budgeting system; types of Budgets; Preparation of Sales Budget; Production Budget, Cash Budget, Master Budget; Flexible Budgeting; Zero Budgeting.

2.9 Standard Costing –Meaning of Standard costing; the distinction between Standard Costing and Budgeting Control; Advantages of Standard costing; Setting up of Standards; Variance Analysis – Material, labour, and Overheads.

2.10 Management Control System: the distinction between strategic planning, Operational Control, and Management control System; Responsibility Accounting; Transfer Pricing; Tools of Control – Residual Income and Return
on Investment; Performance Budgeting; Economic Value added.

2.11 Appraisal of firms – Objectives, Uniform costing; Ratio Based Comparison; Credit Rating; Risk Assessment.

2.12 Appraisal of Projects – Methods of the appraisal – preparation of project report – Economic, Technical, Financial Feasibility – Techniques for evaluation of projects like Pay Back Method, Discounted Cash Flow, Net Present Value,
Internal Rate of Return, etc. – Sensitivity analysis in capital budgeting – Impact of inflation in capital budgeting – Risk analysis in capital budgeting – Social cost-benefit analysis – Simulation and decision tree analysis.

2.13 Working Capital Management: Factors affecting Working Capital requirements; Assessment of Working Capital; Inventory Management; Receivable Management; Cash Management; Method of Financing working capital; different forms of bank credit; working capital and Banking Policy.


3. AUDITING

3.1 Auditing – Nature and scope – Audit Process – Objectives of audit – basic principles governing an audit – Types of audit – Relationship of auditing with other subjects – Internal Audit and External Audit – Audit & Inspection

3.2 Planning and programming of Audit – Division of work; supervision and review of audit notes and working papers; planning the flow of audit work.

3.3 Conduct of Audit – Audit Programme; Audit Note Book; Working Papers and Audit files.

3.4 Internal Control – Internal Control, Internal Check, Internal Audit, and Concurrent Audit.

3.5 Vouching – General consideration vouching of payments and receipts; Vouching of payment into and out of Bank; Vouching of Goods on consignment, Sale on approval basis, Empties, Sale under hire-purchase system and various types of allowances to customers.

3.6 Verification – Meaning; General principles; Verification of Cash in hand and Cash at Bank; Verification and Valuation of Investments and Inventories; Loans Bills Receivables; Freehold and Leasehold property; Debtors, Plant and Machinery; Verification of different liabilities.

3.7 Audit of Limited Company – Statutory requirements under the Companies Act 1956 – Audit of branches – Joint Audit – Concepts of true and fair materiality and audit risk in the context of an audit of companies.

3.8 Dividends and divisible profits – financial, legal, and policy considerations with special reference to depreciation – Audit reports – Qualification and Notes on accounts –Special report on offer documents.

3.9 Audit under income tax and indirect taxes – Special features of audit of banks, Insurance companies, cooperative societies, and Non-banking Financial Companies – Audit of incomplete records – Special audit assignments like an audit of bank borrowers – Inspection of special entities like banks, financial institutions, etc. – Investigation including due diligence.

3.10 Concept of Cost Audit, Management Audit, Operational Audit, Environmental Audit, and Energy Audit.
3.11 Audit under computerized environments – Computer Auditing – Specific problems of EDP audit – the need for a review of internal control especially procedure controls and facility controls – techniques of audit of EDP output – use of computer for internal and management audit purpose – test packs – computerized audit programme – involvement of the auditor at the time of setting up the computer system.


III. ECONOMICS

Section I: Economics

1. Micro Economics: Theory of Consumer Behaviour, Theory of Firm, Theory of Markets, Theory of Distribution and General Equilibrium.

2. Macro Economics: National Income Accounting, Macro-Economic stabilization policies, Fiscal and Monetary Policies, – Classical, Keynesian and Monetarists, Rational Expectation and Supply-side Economics, Public Finance – Theory of Taxation, Expenditure and Borrowing / Debt.

3. Economics of Development and Planning – Theory of Growth and Development, Regional Imbalances, Planning – Types, Models and Evaluation of Plans, Project Economics, and Economic and Financial sector reforms.

4. International Economics – Theories of trade, Foreign Exchange Market, Balance of Payments, International Monetary System and WTO.

5. Money and Banking


Section II: Agricultural Economics

1. Basic principles of Farm Management

2. Role of Agriculture in Economic Development

3. Factor Market – Land Market, Labour Market, including wages and capital Market

4. Agricultural Marketing, Agricultural Prices and Terms of Trade

5. Rural Credit Structure – Formal and Informal, Capital Formation in Agriculture

6. Development Programmes including Poverty Alleviation and Rural Employment

7. Agricultural Policy and planning


Section III: Elementary Statistics for Economics

1. Measures of central tendency and dispersion- correlation, regression, Time-series analysis, and index number

2. Theory of Probability, Sampling theory, Sampling Design, and its application.

3. Statistical Inference and Estimation, Statistical Tools and their application in Economic Analysis and Input-Output Analysis.


IV. ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

» Ecology and its scope, bio-echers, habitat, niche, limiting factors, concept of ecosystem, abiotic, and biotic components, energy flow through the ecosystem, food chain, food web, biomass, primary and secondary production, gross and net production – quantification (energy budget 10% net commercial production), the pattern of primary production and biomass in the major ecosystem of the world, nutrient budget, man’s impact on nutrient cycles.

» Ecosystems of the world, distinguishing characters of forests, grasslands, arid lands, and wetlands. Ecological succession, types of successions, climate, factor and acclimatization, agricultural practices, land use pattern.

» Population growth, dynamics, species interactions – inter and intraspecific competition symbiosis, commensalism, parasitism, prey-predator intersections.

» Types of forests in India and their coverage statistics – forest degradation problems caused by deforestation, biodiversity, threats to biodiversity, wildlife conservation biosphere reserves, national parks, sanctuaries.

» Definition and Sources of Pollution: Type and sources of primary and secondary air pollutants, atmospheric dispersion – distribution and transport of pollutants, the influence of micrometeorological parameters, effects of fog and smoke. Pollutants on plants, human beings, animals, and non-living projects, air pollution control approaches, acid rain, causes, and consequences.

» Sources and types of water pollution, eutrophication, environmental consequences and health effects of water pollution, water quality, DO BOD COD of water pollution. Pesticides pollution and its ecological consequences,
treatment methods in water pollution, control.

» General ideas of environmental legislation – EPA (EPA-Environmental Protection Act, 1956), water and air pollution legislation.

» Sources of soil pollution, harmful effects, problems, and methods of solid waste disposal.

» Energy and environment renewable and non-renewable energy sources, causes of the energy crisis, fuelwood crisis, bio-gas, non-conventional energy, sources, the solar, wind, etc. potential advantage limitation.

» Relationship between development and environmental impact. A concept in EIA, methodology, impact identification, EIA of thermal, power projects, mining hydroelectric projects, irrigation projects, etc., agricultural practices.

» Greenhouse gases, global warming, climate change, and ozone depletion, status in Indian sub-continent.


V. FOOD PROCESSING/ FOOD TECHNOLOGY

General:

» Agriculture and Livestock, milk production in India, National bodies concerned with trade and export of processed foods in the country, special value addition in food processing, food regulations, specifications, process economics and management, Food & Agro Industries as a means of employment generation, problems of food processing in India.

» Food Chemistry, Food Microbiology, Nutrition, Proximate composition of foods, the chemistry of carbohydrates, proteins and fats, the chemistry of food constituents vis à-vis physical properties of foods, changes in food constituents during processing

» Moisture and minerals in foods, acid-soluble and insoluble ash and their significance.

» Vitamins in foods, role of vitamins, vitamin deficiency diseases. Energy Value of Foods, Energy Requirement:  Protein quality, protein malnutrition, infant nutrition, and infant foods, the nutritive value of foods in relation to processing, enzymes, and their application in foods.

» Recommended daily allowance of calories, proteins, vitamins, growth kinetics of micro-organisms, identification of micro-organisms.

» Factors influencing the destruction of micro-organisms. Micro-organisms in natural products and their control, sources, and preventions of contamination.

» Microbiology of atmosphere, water, milk, cereals and cereal products, meat and meat products, fish and fish products, canned foods.

» Food poisoning, foodborne infections. Infestation Control and Pesticides: Commodity storage, insect, pests, and their effects, infestation detection, moulds / their role, rodents / vertebrate pests, pesticides classification/chemistry/formulation, appliances, insect growth regulators, bio-pesticides, fumigants, infestation control, and preventive measures, sanitation, ballooning techniques, irradiation, pesticides and health hazards, safety devices, organic foods.

General Principles of Food Preservation:

  • Preservation of foods by application of heat, canning, bottling, etc.
  • Preservation of food by removal of moisture, water activity, and its significance.
  • Intermediate moisture foods, prevention of food by refrigeration and freezing.
  • Sugar and salt as preserving agents.
  • Use of chemicals in food preservation.
  • Use of micro-organisms in food preservation.
  • Irradiation and microwave heating of food products.

Unit Operations: 

  • Fluid flow, heat transfer, evaporation, application of evaporation in the food industry, types of evaporators, distillation – Routh’s Law, Harry’s Law, classification of distillation, batch distillation, steam distillation, vacuum
    distillation and their application in food industries, drying, theory of drying, free moisture, critical moisture content, equilibrium moisture content, heat transfer in drying, types of driers, and their respective applications in food industries.
  • Material operations, material handling, mixing, kneading, blending, homogenization, separation methods, filtration, centrifugation, size reduction, and classification, slicing, dicing, crushing, grinding, classification of equipment, and application. Crystallization.

The technology of Animal Products:

  • Livestock and poultry population in India
  • Meat and poultry industry in India in relation to Nation’s economy.
  • Types of slaughter, modern abattoir, estimation of animals, meat grading.
  •  Factors influencing the quality of fresh meat and cured meat.
  • Preservation of meat, refrigeration and freezing, thermal processing, dehydration, and use of chemicals.
  • Meat curing and packaging.
  • By-products of the meat industry, egg and egg products.
  • Fisheries resources of the world.
  • Cold storage and freezing preservation, canning of fish and fish products, drying and dehydration of fish.
  • Smoking, curing, and pickling of fish, fish oils, fish meal.
  • By-products of fish processing, fish processing plant sanitation.

Dairy Technology: 
Factors Affecting Composition of Milk :

  • Composition of milk from various species, production, processing, distribution, and storage of liquid milk.
  • The technology of evaporated milk, condensed milk, the technology of non-fat milk solids, full-fat milk powder, and instantised milk powder.
  • The technology of cheese.
  • Fermented milk products, milk plant sanitation, [pasteurization and sterilization.

The technology of Food Grains and Legumes:
Wheat Production, Varieties, and their Qualities:

  • Milling of wheat, the technology of bread, biscuits, crackers, cakes, dough rheology.
  • Rice production, varieties, and their qualities.
  • Cooking quality of rice and methods of studying the same, methods of part boiling, the economics of part boiling.
  • Cooking quality of new and old rice.
  • Rice milling operations, milling machinery, degree of milling.
  • By-products of rice milling and their utilisation.
  • Processing oil seeds, extraction of oil from oilseeds.
  • Refining and bleaching of oils, hydrogenation of oil.
  • Legume – production, types of legumes, chemical aspects and quality of legumes, processing, secondary processing of products, utilization of minor pulses.

The technology of Fruits and Vegetables:

  • Containers and other packaging materials used in fruit and vegetable preservation. Canning and bottling of fruit and vegetables, quality of raw materials for processing. Fruit syrups, squashes, cordials and nectars, jam, jellies and marmalades, pickles, and chutneys.
  • Carbonated beverages.
  • Vinegar and tomato products.
  • Storage and handling of fruits and vegetables.
  • By-products from fruits and vegetables.
  • Aseptic processing and packaging, processing of mushrooms.

Plantation Products and Flavour Technology:

  • Refining and processing of spices, packing of spices, value-added products from spices.
  • Carbonated beverages.
  • Production, processing, grading, and marketing of tea, curing, roasting, brewing of coffee, instant coffee –manufacture/production, processing, grading, and marketing of cocoa.
  • Food plant organization, factors in plant location, plant layout, industrial costing, testing marketing of new product.

Flavors – Production, processing, chemical composition, properties, special attributes, flavoring components, extraction, evaluation, quality control, and standards, formation of flavors in foods, technology, isolation and identification of flavoring materials, synthetic flavouring agents and problems thereof, flavor evaluation, standards/specifications.

Packaging Technology – Evolution, functions, relevance, design, protective packaging, shelf life, permeability, kinetics, various types of packing materials, vacuum/gas/shrink/stretch / industrial packaging, sealing, pouches, packaging standards/regulations/laws/specifications, quality control, packaging, and ecosystem.


VI. FORESTRY

  • Forestry – Definition, forest types and their characteristics, the necessity of forests with changing and modernization of technology, inter-relationship between agriculture and forestry.
  • Forest environments and environmental factors, forest community, ecological dominance, ecological adaptation end evolution, forest ecotypes.
  • Regeneration of forest – Definition and objectives, natural regeneration by seed (general consideration of afforestation and reforestation, preparation of plantation area site maintenance and improvement).
  • Environment factor influencing forest vegetation and productivity, physiology of leaf shedding and peeling of barks in perennial trees, the physiological basis of including and breaking of dormancy in seeds.
  • Silviculture – Definition, factors, affecting the size, form, and life of forest trees, growth characteristics, crop morphology, differentiation of stands, forest composition, and distribution.
  • Silviculture Systems – Clear strip and alternate strip systems, uniform system and group system, irregular wood system, two-storeyed high forest system, coppice with a standard system.
  • Principal groups of plants, classification of forest plants yielding economic products, origin, and distribution of economically important forest flora, nature and importance of economic parts in the important families (Ranunculaceae, Magnoliaceae, Annonaceae, Malvaceae, Bombaceae, Tiliaceae, Linacease, Rutaceae, Meliaceae, Rhamnaceae, Anacardiaceae, Leguminosae, Myrtaceae, Compositae, Sapotaceae, Bignoniaceae, Libiatae, Casurianaceae, Dioscoreaceae, Palmae, Coniferae, Cycadaceae), growth characteristics, distribution, phenology, silvicultural characters, community environment, regeneration methods and management of conifers and dicot species, species suitable for canal banks, roadside, landscape, and railside plantations.
  • Importance of energy plantation, quick-growing species, hydrocarbon plants, biomass for thermal purposes, principles of gasification, densification, estimation of calorific value.
  • Seed orchards, maintenance and selection of orchards, classes of seeds and production methods, seed extraction and processing, production of elite seedlings for improving planting value, increase through tissue culture, nursery raising, containerization.
  • Microflora in forestry system, carbon cycle decomposition of organic matter, humus formation, nitrogen cycle – nitrogen fixation, nitrification, denitrification microbial transformation of phosphorus, sulfur, iron, rhizobial nitrogen fixation, the role of micorrhyzae in making nutrients available, use of soil fungi or recycling organic wastes and edible mushroom production.
  • Definition of social and agroforestry, tree farming on wasteland, afforestation on hill slopes, wastelands, riverbanks, and water tanks, cultivation of fodder trees.
  • Wood structure, cellular composition – barks, sapwood, heartwood and pith, earlywood, latewood, growth ring, minute structures of wood-ty lose, and other
    inclusions in pores, ultrastructures of wood, compression and tension wood, physical properties of wood – reaction of heat, water, sound, light and electricity, mechanical properties of wood.
  • Importance of wood and minor forest products, products utilized after minor processing – grasses, products utilized after processing – gums, resins, rubber, fibers, flosses, distillation and extraction of tanning materials and vegetable dyes, cattle feed, non-edible oilseeds, tussar, and lac.
  • Conversion, extraction, and transportation of timbers and firewood, marketing and sales, timber depot.
  • Importance of forest pathology, the study of important diseases, diseases caused by fungi, mycoplasma, parasitic and non-parasitic causes, use of mycorrhizae in disease control.
  • Importance of forest, pests attacking forest products, felled trees, converted timbers and seeds, and their control, measures, termites in relation to forestry and timbers, beneficial forest insects – silk, lac, and honeybees.
  • Economics of forest management, forest conservation and development, forest products, their demand and supply forecasting, marketing of forest products.
  • Forest evaluation and economic appraisal, types of appraisal, business and agricultural residues (rice straw, wheat straw, sugarcane bagasse, cotton stalk, jute sticks, hemp, banana stem, and peduncle water hyacinth), pulping – mechanical and chemical, bleaching, waste paper utilization, free species suitable for pulp
    making.
  • Forest trees of industrial utility – eucalyptus, casuarina, acacia, bamboo. Small scale industries based on forestry – agricultural implements, furniture, musical instruments, turnery, large scale industries – veneer and plywood pulp, hardboard packing case, coach building sleepers.
  • Defects and abnormalities of wood, method of evaluation and measurement of natural defects, defects during processing, manufacturing defects, seasoning of the wood, the influence of temperature, relative humidity and air circulation, method of seasoning, air kiln and chemical, classification of timbers for seasoning schedule.
  • Natural durability of timber, bamboo, and thatch grasses, agencies for the destruction of timber – fungi, insects, micro-organisms, preservation of wood – types of preservants, permeability, and treatability of timber, fixation of wood preservatives, hot and cold bath process, pressure process, fire protection of timber.

VII. AGRICULTURE

LAND DEVELOPMENT (SOIL SCIENCE)/ AGRICULTURE

Land use and land capability classification, irritability criteria; interpretation of soil and land resource data, characteristics of Agro-climatic zones of India. Soil and water conservation theory and practice for different agro-climatic conditions. Water management in crop production and irrigation agronomy – water resources in India, soil-plant-water relations; principles and practices of irrigation and water requirements criteria. Drainage of Agricultural Lands. Soil fertility management; fertilizers and manures including bio-fertilizers. Problematic soils and reclamation measures. Crop husbandry in irrigated and rainfed systems with particular reference to cereals, pulses, oilseeds, fiber crops, sugar crops, and fodders and pastures. Organic farming concepts. Dryland farming / rainfed agriculture/watershed development – concepts and field techniques. Biotechnologies in field crops. Wastewater treatment and recycling of bio-wastes. Integrated farming systems in irrigated and rainfed conditions. Seed production and technology. Principles of agronomic trials / experimental designs and data interpretations.


AGRICULTURE

» Ecology and its relevance to man, natural resources, their sustainable management, and conservation. Physical and social environment as factors of crop distribution and production. Agroecology; cropping pattern as indicators of environments. Environmental pollution and associated hazards to crops, animals, and humans. Climate change – international conventions and global initiatives. Greenhouse effect and global warming. Advance tools for ecosystem analysis – Remote sensing (RS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS).

» Cropping patterns in different agro-climatic zones of the country. Impact of high-yielding and short-duration varieties on shifts in cropping patterns. Concepts of various cropping and farming systems. Organic and Precision farming. Package of practices for production of important cereals, pulses, oilseeds, fibers, sugar, commercial and fodder crops.

» Important features and scope of various types of forestry plantations such as social forestry, agro-forestry, and natural forests. Propagation of forest plants. Forest products. Agroforestry and value addition. Conservation of forest flora and fauna.

» Weeds, their characteristics, dissemination, and association with various crops; their multiplications; cultural, biological, and chemical control of weeds. Soil- physical, chemical, and biological properties. Processes and factors of soil formation. Soils of India. Mineral and organic constituents of soils and their role in maintaining soil productivity. Essential plant nutrients and other beneficial elements in soils and plants. Principles of soil fertility, soil testing and fertilizer recommendations, integrated nutrient management. Biofertilizers. Losses of nitrogen in the soil, nitrogen-use efficiency in submerged rice soils, nitrogen fixation in soils. Efficient phosphorus and potassium use. Problem soils and their reclamation. Soil factors affecting greenhouse gas emission.

» Soil conservation, integrated watershed management. Soil erosion and its management. Dryland agriculture and its problems. Technology for stabilizing agriculture production in rain-fed areas. Water-use efficiency in relation to crop production, criteria for scheduling irrigations, ways, and means of reducing runoff losses of irrigation water. Rainwater harvesting. Drip and sprinkler irrigation. Drainage of waterlogged soils, quality of irrigation water, the effect of industrial effluents on soil, and water pollution. Irrigation projects in India.

» Farm management, scope, importance and characteristics, farm planning. Optimum resource use and budgeting. Economics of different types of farming systems. Marketing management – strategies for development, market intelligence. Price fluctuations and their cost; the role of cooperatives in agricultural economy; types and systems of farming and factors affecting them. Agricultural price policy. Crop Insurance.

» Agricultural extension, its importance, and role, methods of evaluation of extension programmes, socio-economic survey, and status of big, small, and marginal farmers and landless agricultural labourers. Training programmes for extension workers. Role of Krishi Vigyan Kendra’s (KVK) in the dissemination of Agricultural technologies. Non-Government Organization (NGO) and self-help group approach for rural development.

» Cell structure, function, and cell cycle. Synthesis, structure, and function of genetic material. Laws of heredity. Chromosome structure, chromosomal aberrations, linkage and cross-over, and their significance in recombination breeding. Polyploidy, euploids, and aneuploids. Mutations – and their role in crop improvement. Heritability, sterility and incompatibility, classification and their application in crop improvement. Cytoplasmic inheritance, sex-linked,
sex-influenced and sex-limited characters.

» History of plant breeding. Modes of reproduction, selling, and crossing techniques. Origin, evolution, and domestication of crop plants, the center of origin, the law of homologous series, crop genetic resources conservation and utilization. Application of principles of plant breeding, improvement of crop plants. Molecular markers and their application in plant improvement. Pure-line selection, pedigree, mass, and recurrent selections, combining ability, its significance in plant breeding. Heterosis and its exploitation. Somatic hybridization. Breeding for disease and pest resistance. Role of interspecific and intergeneric hybridization. Role of genetic engineering and biotechnology in crop improvement. Genetically modified crop plants.

» Seed production and processing technologies. Seed certification, seed testing, and storage. DNA fingerprinting and seed registration. Role of public and private sectors in seed production and marketing. Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) issues, WTO issues, and its impact on Agriculture.

» Principles of Plant Physiology with reference to plant nutrition, absorption, translocation, and metabolism of nutrients. Soil – water- plant relationship.

» Enzymes and plant pigments; photosynthesis- modern concepts and factors affecting the process, aerobic and anaerobic respiration; C3, C4, and CAM mechanisms. Carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism. Growth and development; photoperiodism and vernalization. Plant growth substances and their role in crop production. Physiology of seed development and germination; dormancy. Stress physiology – drought, salt, and water stress.

» Major fruits, plantation crops, vegetables, spices, and flower crops. Package practices of major horticultural crops. Protected cultivation and high-tech horticulture. Post-harvest technology and value addition of fruits and vegetables. Landscaping and commercial floriculture. Medicinal and aromatic plants. Role of fruits and vegetables in human nutrition.

» Diagnosis of pests and diseases of field crops, vegetables, orchard and plantation crops, and their economic importance. Classification of pests and diseases and their management. Integrated pest and disease management. Storage pests and their management. Biological control of pests and diseases. Epidemiology and forecasting of major crop pests and diseases. Plant quarantine measures. Pesticides, their formulation, and modes of action.

» Food production and consumption trends in India. Food security and growing population – vision 2020. Reasons for grain surplus. National and international food policies. Production, procurement, distribution constraints. Availability of food grains, per capita expenditure on food. Trends in poverty, Public Distribution System and Below Poverty Line population, Targeted Public Distribution System (PDS), policy implementation in context to globalization. Processing constraints. Relation of food production to National Dietary Guidelines and food consumption pattern. Food-based dietary approaches to eliminate hunger. Nutrient deficiency – Micronutrient deficiency: Protein Energy Malnutrition or Protein Calorie Malnutrition (PEM or PCM), Micronutrient deficiency and HRD in the context of work capacity of women and children. Food grain productivity and food security.

VIII. MINOR IRRIGATION (WATER RESOURCES)

» Water Requirement of Crops:

Crop period, duty, the delta of the crop, the duty of water, the relation between duty and delta, irrigation efficiency, consumptive use of water, soil moisture relationship, soil moisture deficiency, estimating depth and frequency of irrigation on the basis of soil moisture regime concepts.

» Canal Irrigation System:

Alignment of canals, watershed canals, contour canals, side shape canals, distribution system for canal irrigation, main canal, branch canal, distributaries, minors, watercourses, curves in channels, gross command area, culturable command area, irrigation intensity, the time factor, area factor, determination of channel capacity, channel losses,
evaporation, seepage (percolation and absorption), seepage loss factors, empirical formulas for channel loss, sediment transport and load, mechanics of sediment transport, design of channels in coarse alluvium, shields entertainment method for the channel with the protected bank, regime channels, Kennedy’s theory, critical velocity
rates, design procedure, Kutter’s formula, Manning’s formula, generosity coefficients, Chery’s formula, Lacey’s theory, Lacey’s regime channels, the lining of irrigation canals, and economics of lining.

» Hydrology:

Definition, hydrologic cycle, rainfall, and its distribution, run-off and surface run-off, yield of drainage basis, sub-surface run-off, hydrograph, infiltration, soil moisture, field capacity, infiltration capacity curve and its equation, small and large watershed, precipitation and its measurement, frequency of storm intensity duration curve, stage-discharge curve, the velocity of flow in a stream, time of concentration of a catchment, valley storage, unit hydrograph theory, computation of run-off from rainfall, flood discharge and design flood.

» Ground Water, Hydrology and Construction of Wells and Tubewells:

Drainage of groundwater, groundwater reservoir, the occurrence of groundwater, porosity yield, specific yield, specific retention of different kinds of formations, determination of specific yield, permeability, transmissibility, the velocity of groundwater, hydraulics of wells, aquifers and aquiclude, non-artesian, aquifers, artesian aquifers, and artesian wells, specific capacity, infiltration wells, infiltration galleries, measurement of yield by theoretical and practical method, pumping test and recuperation test, Thiem’s equilibrium formula for confined and unconfined aquifers, well interference, well loss and specific capacity, open wells and dug wells, different methods of recharging, various types of tubewells and its construction, methods of drilling of tubewells, well casing and screens, gravel packing, design of strainer, pumping arrangement.

» Diversion Head Works:

Principles and design of weir and barrage, gravity and non-gravity weirs, the layout of diversion headworks, diversion weir, types of weirs, masonry weirs with vertical drops, the under sluices, the canal head regulator, silt control works, causes of failure by piping and by uplift.

» Canal Falls, Canal Regulators:

Types of falls and their design, design of head regulator and cross regulator.

» Cross Drainage Works:

Aqueducts and siphon, level crossing principles, and design.

» Dams and Reservoirs:

Basic principles of reservoir planning, types of dams and their characteristics, selection of dam site, investigations (Engineering, Geological, and Hydrological) combination of forces for design of dams, modes of failure, and criteria for structural stability of gravity dams. Elementary profile of a gravity dam, construction of gravity dam, cracking of concrete in gravity dam, joints in gravity dam, keyways, water stops, and foundation treatment for gravity dams.

» Spillage, Gates, and Energy Dissipators:

Definition, location, design consideration, various types of spillways, design of crest of ogee spillway, cavitation, energy dissipators below overflow spillway and their design, use of hydraulic jump as an energy dissipator, stilling basin, types of gates, and their characteristics.

» River Control:

Scope and objective of river control, marginal embankment, spurs, cut-offs, launching apron.

» Sanitation:

Basic sciences for wash and sanitation, public health and hygiene, water supply, solid waste management.


IX. SOCIAL WORK

» Concept of Professional Social Work:

Concept, Definition, Objectives, Goals, Values, Principles, and Code of Ethics. Ethical Responsibilities in Social Work, Scope of Professional Social Work, Attributes of Professional Social Worker.

» Evolution of Social Work:

Evolution of Social Work, Social work in Ancient, Medieval, and Modern Period. Social Work and Related Terms: Social Services, Social Welfare, Social Reforms & Charity. Social Security, Human Rights, and Peoples’ participation, Social Justice and Social development.

» Development of Social Work Education in India:

Evolution of social work education in India, Training in Social Work Education, Focus, Nature, and Content of Social Work Education. Fields of Social Work. Functions and roles of the Government and Non-Government Organizations.

» Democracy as a Concept:

Meaning, types, features, strengths, and limitations. Constitutional FoundationsSalient features of Indian constitution, Preamble of constitution, composition, power, and functions of Indian constitution.

» Unit-3 Introduction to ideologies:

The ideology of Sustainable and People-centered development. The ideology of action groups & social movements Ideology of non-government organizations. Approach to Social WorkRights –Based approach, strength-based approach

» Contemporary Ideologies:

Nationalism, Feminism, Multiculturalism, Postmodernism.

» Working with Groups:

Nature, types, and Characteristics of Group, Definition of Group Work, Purpose and evolution of the method, Membership, Duration, and phases in Group Work.

» Group Process and Dynamics:

Process in groups and recreational, non-formal education, skill development group, leadership, isolation, decision making, communication, relationship, conflict, personal experiences, Bond, subgroup.

» Social Welfare Administration:

Concept & Process of social welfare and models of social welfare. Concept, Purpose, Principles, and Significance of social welfare administration. Structure, functions of Department of Social Justice (Government of India), Concept of Local Self Government.

» Social Justice and Welfare Organization:

Concept and Definition of Social Justice, Meaning, concept, and Significance of Welfare Organizations, welfare programmes, Societies Registration Act, 1860, Bombay Public Trust Act, 1950.

» Social Policy and Management of Agency:

Definition & meaning of social Policy, Concept, and scope of POSDCORB, Fund Raising, Resource Mobilization, Monitoring & Evaluation, Social Audit. Project Proposal: Guidelines, Structure, and format of Project Proposal. Salient features of Research project and funding project.

» Understanding Community:

Concept of Community, Functions of Community. Social Work perspective of Community. Community organization as a method of Social Work: Rothman’s model of Community Organization. Concepts: Power structure, Empowerment, Community participation, Role of Community Organizer (As Guide, Enabler, Expert, Therapist),
Role of a Social Worker.

» Strategies / Tools in Community organization:

Advocacy, Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), Participatory Rapid Assessment, Public Interest Litigation (PIL), Community Meeting, Cadre Building, Training, Action Plan. Data Bank Skills in Community organization – Information Gathering. Community Profiling Observation & Analytical Skill, Listening & Responding Skill,
Conflict Resolution, Evaluation. Process Recording, Documentation in Community work.

» Social Work Research:

Meaning, Scope, and importance of social work research; salient features of Qualitative and Quantitative research, Research Methodology: Steps of social research, Research Design, Sampling Design, Data collection –formulation of a tool, sources, and methods of data collection, data processing

» Social Action as a method of Social Work:

Conceptual Framework of Integrated social work, Concept of Integrated social work. Need, Importance and Essential elements of integrated social work practice. Biodiversity, Disaster Management, Environment, Jal-Jungle-Jameen, and Unconventional Energy Sources. Communication process in social work practice – Verbal and Non-Verbal

» Social Policy:

Concept of Social Policy, Relationship between social policy and social development, value underlying social policy, the fundamental rights, duties and directive principles of State Policy in Indian Constitution. Social Legislation: Concept, need, importance and objectives of social legislations – UN declaration of Human Rights 1948, Public
Interest Litigation, Free Legal Aid Services; Lok Adalat, Mediation, Right to Information Act 2005, Right to Education Act 2009, The Lokpal and Lokayukta Act 2013, Protection against Domestic Violence Act 2005, Juvenile Justice Act 2002 (Amendment)

» Indian Society:

Tribal Community; meaning, characteristics. Rural Community; meaning, characteristics. Urban Community; meaning, characteristics. Social Stratification; Meaning, definition, functions, dysfunction, caste. Social Mobility; Concept, meaning, class. Social Institution, Social control. Meaning, characteristics, and functions of social institution – Family; Marriage; Religion; Education; State.

» Social Problems And Fields Of Social Work In India:

Problem Pertaining To Marriage, Family And Caste: Dowry-Child Marriage, Divorce, Families With Working Couples, Disorganised Families, Families With Emigrant Heads Of The Households, Gender Inequality, Authoritarian Family Structure, Major Changes In Caste Systems And Problems of Casteism. Problems Pertaining To Weaker Sections: Problems Of Children, Women, Aged. Handicapped and Of Backward Classes (SCs, STs, and Other Backward Classes). Problems Of Deviance – Truancy, Vagrancy And Juvenile Delinquency, Crime, White Collar Crime, Organized Crime, Collective Violence, Terrorism, Prostitution, And Sex Related Crimes. Social Vices – Alcoholism, Drug Addiction, Beggary, Corruption, and Communalism. Suicide of Farmer’s – Causes and Measures to prevent Farmer’s Suicide.

» Problems of Social Structure:

Poverty, Unemployment, Bonded Labour, Child Labour. Fields Of Social work In India:- Child Development, Development Of Youth, Women’s Empowerment, Welfare Of Aged, Welfare Of Physically, Mentally And Socially Handicapped, Welfare Of Backward Classes (SCs, STs, and Other Backward Classes), Rural Development Urban  Community Development, Medical And Psychiatric Social Work, Industrial Social Work, Social Security Offender Reforms.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q. How much time does it take to cover NABARD Grade A Syllabus?

A. If you want to complete the entire Grade A Syllabus you must start your preparations 5-6 months before the exam for covering the entire NABARD Grade A Syllabus.

Q. Is NABARD Grade A Syllabus tough?

A. Toughness of any exam depends upon the person how he makes strategy to complete the entire syllabus

Q. Is the syllabus for NABARD Grade-A Prelims & Mains the same?

A. No, the syllabus for prelims & mains is different. Go through the entire article to have a complete understanding of the syllabus.

Q. What are the different sections in NABARD Grade A mains Syllabus?

A. The different sections include English, Economics, Social Issues, and topics related to legal services.

Q. What is the Syllabus for the NABARD Grade-A Exam Pattern?

A. NABARD Grade-A Exam Pattern consists of 3 phases- 1. Preliminary Examination 2. Mains Examination 3. Interview

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