Comprehensive List of Physics and Chemistry Formulas for Effective Exam Preparation


Physics Formulas

Physics is a subject that emphasizes understanding rather than rote memorization. It is particularly challenging as it demands a high level of attentiveness. At Dream Big Institution, the team provides a collection of formulas that not only enhance comprehension but also expand thinking capabilities. These formulas serve as a valuable resource, enabling students to delve deeper into the subject and develop a broader perspective.

Physics FormulasFormulas
Average Speed FormulaS = d/t
Acceleration Formulaa =v-u/t
Density Formula P=m/V
Power FormulaP=W/t
Newton’s Second LawF = m × a
Weight FormulaW=mg
Pressure FormulaP=F/A
Ohm’s Law FormulaV= I × R
Kinetic Energy FormulaE = ½ mv²
Frequency FormulaF =v/λ
Pendulum FormulaT = 2π√L/g
Fahrenheit FormulaF = (9/5× °C) + 32
Work FormulaW = F × d × cosθ
Torque FormulaT = F × r × sinθ
Displacement FormulaΔX = Xf–Xi 
Mass FormulaF = m × a or m = F/m
Amplitude Formulax = A sin (ωt + ϕ)  
Tension FormulaT= mg+ma
Surface Charge Density Formulaσ = q / A
Linear Speed FormulaV(linear speed) = ΔS/ΔT
Position FormulaΔx=x2−x1
Heat of Fusion Formulaq = m × ΔHF
Gravity FormulaF α m₁m₂/r₂
Spring Potential Energy FormulaP.E=1/2 k × x2
Physics Kinematics Formulav2=v2o+2a(x-xo)
DC Voltage Drop FormulaV=I ×  R
Hubble’s Law Formulav = Ho r
Induced Voltage Formulae = – N(dΦB/dt)
Latent Heat FormulaL = Q / M
Wavelength Formulaλ = v/f
Gravitational Force FormulaF = G(m1m2)/R2
Potential Energy FormulaPE = mgh
Strain Energy FormulaU = Fδ / 2
Friction Force Formulaf = μN
Cell Potential FormulaE0cell = E0red − E0oxid
Shear Modulus Formula(shear stress)/(shear strain) = (F/A)/(x/y
Water Pressure FormulaWater pressure= ρ g h
Refractive Index Formulan = c/v
Centroid FormulaC = [(x1 + x2 + x3)/ 3, (y1 + y2 + y3)/ 3]

Important Physics Formulas

Given below is the most important Physics formulae list:

  • Planck constant h = 6.63 × 10−34 J.s = 4.136 × 10-15 eV.s
  • Gravitation constant G = 6.67×10−11 m3 kg−1 s−2
  • Boltzmann constant k = 1.38 × 10−23 J/K
  • Molar gas constant R = 8.314 J/(mol K)
  • Avogadro’s number NA = 6.023 × 1023 mol−1
  • Charge of electron e = 1.602 × 10−19 C
  • Permittivity of vacuum 0 = 8.85 × 10−12 F/m
  • Coulomb constant 1/4πε0 = 8.9875517923(14) × 109 N m2/C2
  • Faraday constant F = 96485 C/mol
  • Mass of electron me = 9.1 × 10−31 kg
  • Mass of proton mp = 1.6726 × 10−27 kg
  • Mass of neutron mn = 1.6749 × 10−27 kg
  • Stefan-Boltzmann constant σ = 5.67 × 10−8 W/(m2 K4)
  • Rydberg constant R∞ = 1.097 × 107 m−1
  • Bohr magneton µB = 9.27 × 10−24 J/T 
  • Bohr radius a0 = 0.529 × 10−10 m 
  • Standard atmosphere atm = 1.01325 × 105 Pa 
  • Wien displacement constant b = 2.9 × 10−3 m K .
  • Wave = ∆x ∆t wave = average velocity ∆x = displacement ∆t = elapsed time.
  • Vavg = (vi + vf*)2

Vavg = The average velocity 

vi = initial velocity 

vf = final velocity

  • a = ∆v ∆t,

a = acceleration 

∆v = change in velocity 

∆t = elapsed time.

  • ∆x = vi∆t + 1/2 a(∆t)2

∆x = the displacement 

vi = the initial velocity 

∆t = the elapsed time 

a = the acceleration 

  • ∆x = vf∆t − 1/2 a(∆t)2

∆x = displacement 

vf = is the final velocity 

∆t = elapsed time

a = acceleration 

  • F = ma 

F = force 

m = mass 

a = acceleration

  • W = mg 

W = weight 

m = mass 

g = acceleration which is due to gravity.

  • f = µN 

f = friction force 

µ = coefficient of friction 

N = normal force 

  • p = mv
  • W = F d cos θ or W = F!d 

W = work t

F = force 

d = distance 

θ = angle between F and the direction of motion

  • KE  = 1/2 mv2 K

KE = kinetic energy

m = mass

v = velocity

  • PE = mgh 

PE = potential energy 

m = mass 

g = acceleration due to gravity 

h = height

  • W = ∆(KE) 

W = work done 

KE = kinetic energy. 

  • P = W ∆t 

P = power

W = work

∆t = elapsed time

Solved Examples

Q.1. Calculate the dc voltage drop if the circuit length is 500 cms and in it 10 A of current flows in 20 s ?


The DC voltage drop is given as : V=L×I/T

where, I = current through the circuit in Amperes.

L = Length of the circuit in metres

T = time for which the current has flowed through the circuit in seconds

V = Voltage in Volts.



V = 0.25 Volts.

Q.2. The spring constant of a stretched string is 50Nm−1 and displacement is 20 cm. Compute potential energy stored in the stretched string.


Given parameters are,


x = 20 cm = 0.2 m

Potential energy will be:


=½ X 50×(0.2)2

= 1 J

Q.3. A body moves along the x- axis according to the relation x=1–2t+3t2x=1–2t+3t2x = 1 – 2 t + 3t^{2}, where x is in metres and t is in seconds. Find the Acceleration of the body when t = 3s


We have,

x=1–2t+3t2x=1–2t+3t2x = 1 – 2 t + 3t^{2}then;

Velocity v= dx/dt= −2+6t

v= dx/dt= −2+6t

Acceleration:  v=dv/dt =6(m/s2)

Q.4. Calculate the weight of an object on the moon which weighs 50kg on earth.


Here weight = mass x gravitational acceleration

= m x g

= 50 kg x 1.6 m/s2

= 80 Kg m/s2

Q.5. Find the displacement covered by an object which accelerates from rest to 60 m/s in 3s. 


Initial velocity = 0 and final velocity = 60 m/s

Time taken = 3s

Therefore, acceleration = 60/3 = 20m/s2.

Displacement (S) = ut + ½ at2

= 90 m

Q.6. A person goes from Point A to Point B in 10s and returns back in 8s. If the distance between A and B is 36m, find the average speed of the person.


Here total distance covered = 72m

Total time taken = 18s

Therefore, average speed  = Total distance covered/Total time taken


Total distance covered total time taken=7218

= 4 m/s.

Q.7. If an object is moving with a velocity of 5 m/s and has a kinetic energy of 100J, Find its mass.


We know that KE = ½ mv2

100 = ½ x m x 5 x 5

100 = 25 m/2

m = 100×2/25 = 200/25

= 8 kg

Q.8. A long thin rod of length 50 cm has a total charge of 5 mC uniformly distributed over it. Find the linear charge density.


q = 5 mC = 5 × 10–3 C, l= 50 cm = 0.5 m. λ=?





Q.9. A car is travelling with a velocity of 10 m/s and it has a mass of 250 Kg. Compute its Kinetic energy?


As given here,

Mass of the body, m = 250 Kg,

Velocity of it, v = 10 m/s,

So Kinetic energy will be as:

E = 1/2mv^2

E = 1/2×250×10^2

= 125 ×100

E = 12500 joules

Q.10. The heat needed for a phase transfer of a 2 kg substance is Determine its latent heat.


Given parameters are,

Q = 400

M = 2 kg

The formula for latent heat is given by,

L = Q / M

L = 400 / 2

L = 200

How to use Physics formulas effectively

When you reach class 11, the practical application of physics becomes more apparent, especially in mechanics. This branch of physics offers a multitude of fascinating concepts to explore. Here, you will learn how to apply physics formulas to solve numerical problems and how to integrate multiple concepts seamlessly. Whether you are tackling objective or subjective questions, two crucial elements come into play: a clear understanding of the underlying concepts and the skillful utilization of physics formulas.

To effectively utilize physics formulas, it is advisable to begin by thoroughly studying the chapter. Alongside this, you can download the Physics Wallah physics formula sheet specific to that chapter. Familiarize yourself with all the formulas and then proceed to solve numerical problems. This approach enables you to develop a solid grasp of the subject matter and comprehend the practical application of the physics formulas.

Furthermore, the physics formula sheet proves invaluable during last-minute revisions, particularly in the week leading up to your exams. By reviewing the entire sheet of physics formulas before the final exam, you can expedite the syllabus completion process and enhance the efficiency of your revision. Last-minute revisions have the potential to significantly improve your grades, making it highly recommended to create personalized notes with the aid of the physics formula sheet. Writing down the formulas and concepts reinforces your understanding and aids in retaining the information effectively.

Chemistry Formulas

Chemistry, a branch of science that explores the physical and chemical properties of substances, plays a crucial role in the formation of new materials. It encompasses the study of all the elements present in nature, each possessing a distinct name derived from chemical investigations. These chemical proportions and compositions are represented by formulas, commonly known as chemical formulas.

Chemical formulas serve as a means for scientists to express the precise arrangement of atoms within a molecule or a chemical compound. They utilize the symbols of chemical elements along with numerical subscripts to indicate the number of atoms involved. To facilitate comprehension, a chemistry formula table is often employed to aid in understanding and applying these formulas effectively.

Types of Chemistry Formulae or Chemical Formulae

There are three types of chemical formulae:

  • Molecular Formula
  • Empirical Formula
  • Structural Formula

Molecular Formula: Molecular formula also known as true formula provides us with the exact number of atoms of every element present in a molecule. The numerical subscripts after the chemical symbols denote the total number of atoms present. The molecular formula also tells us about the type of atom present in a molecule of a compound. Below is an example of a molecular formula.

Molecular Formula of glucose: C₆H₁₂O₆ 

It represents the actual number of atoms of each constituent (Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen) in one molecule of glucose.

Empirical Formula: The word empirical represents something that can be assessed through observation. As such the empirical formula which is more than often emanated from experimental data is defined as the simplest ratio of all the atoms present in the elements that make up a compound. An example of empirical formula extracted by simplifying the molecular formula of glucose:

Empirical formula of glucose: CH₂O

It represents the whole ratio number of the atoms present that is, C, H and O

Structural Formula: While it is good to have chemical formulas in an easy and compact manner, it is also important to know the arrangements of atoms in them. The structural formula tells us about atomic bonding and their arrangement in spaces. It helps us to identify which atoms are bonded with one another and which are not. Given below is an example of the structural formula of glucose which represents the atomic bonding and arrangement.

How to Write Chemical Formulas?

A chemical formula can be written by the name of the elements that constitute a compound along with some basic rules and in a reverse manner.

  1. Chemical formulas of binary compounds which are made of two different elements can be written with the help of valency.
  2. The capacity of the combination of the elements to form a compound or compound is known as valency. 
  3. Firstly the valencies of the two elements should be determined and then the sums of the valencies of the two different elements should be made equal by specifying the common lowest multiple of the two valencies. 
  4. Cation is an atom with positive charge and anion is an atom with a negative charge. In case if a metal and non-metal are present, the metal should be placed first in the formula. For example NaCl, in which Na has a positive charge and Cl has a negative charge.

Let’s take an example of balanced 

Aluminium oxide:

O = 2 (belongs to group VI)

Al = 3 (belongs to group III)

Lowest common multiple of the valencies is 6,

O : 2 x 3 = 6

Al : 3x 2 = 6

The chemical formula of Aluminium oxide is Al₂O₃

Steps to Write a Chemical Reaction

It is important to note that balancing of chemical equations plays a major role in this process.  Basically, four rules are followed while writing a chemical equation. Let’s have a look below, 

  1. On the left side of the equation, the right number of reactants is written.
  2. On the right side of the equation, the right formulas constituting the products are written.
  3. Both the reactants and the products are partitioned by an arrow which points towards the products. This arrow indicates “to produce”.
  4. With the help of plus signs various products and reactants are separated. The plus sign indicates ” reacts with” on the reactants side and it means “and”  on the products side.

Let’s take an example of a balanced chemical reaction where hydrogen and chlorine will react to make HCl.

The first step involves writing the equation in terms of the formulas of both the elements, both of which are diatomic in nature.

H2 + Cl2 → HCl 

There are two hydrogen atoms and chlorine atoms on the reactants side and one atom each on the product which can be now fixed and balanced by the inclusion of the coefficient 2 on the side of the product.

H2 + Cl2 → 2HCl

Now both the sides are balanced having two hydrogen and chlorine atoms each.

Some examples of chemical reactions are listed below:

Photosynthesis: 6CO2 + 6H2O  → C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O

Calcium carbonate formation: CaCl2 + Na2CO3 → CaCO3 + 2NaCl

Iron rusting: 4Fe + 3O2 + 6H2O → 4Fe(OH)3.

Combustion of hydrogen: 2H2(g) + O2(g) → 2H2O(l ) 

Table of Chemical Formulas (Molecular)

Compound NameMolecular Formulae
Acetic acidCH3COOH
Hydrochloric acidHCl
Sulfuric acidH2SO4
Nitric acidHNO3
Phosphoric acidH3PO4
Sodium phosphateNa3PO4
Calcium carbonateCaCO3
Ammonium sulfate(NH4)2SO4
Carbonic acidH2CO3
Sodium bicarbonateNaHCO3
Sodium hydroxideNaOH
Calcium hydroxideCa(OH)2
Hydrobromic acidHBr
Nitrous acidHNO2
Potassium hydroxideKOH
Silver nitrateAgNO3
Sodium carbonateNa2CO3
Sodium chlorideNaCl
Magnesium hydroxideMg(OH)2
Nitrogen dioxideNO2
Sodium nitrateNaNO3
Sulfurous acidH2SO3
Aluminium sulfateAl2(SO4)3
Aluminium oxideAl2O3
Ammonium nitrateNH4NO3
Ammonium phosphate(NH4)3PO4
Barium hydroxideBa(OH)2
Carbon tetrachlorideCCl4
Citric acidC6H8O7
Hydrocyanic acidHCN
Salicylic AcidC7H6O3
Hydroiodic acidHI
Hypochlorous acidHClO
Iron iii oxideFe2O3
Magnesium phosphateMg3(PO4)2

List of Chemical Compound Formulas

Compounds are basically substances that constitute two elements or more in a definite percentage. With the help of chemical formulas, the atoms of the elements in a compound can be known. The list below shows some chemical compounds along with their chemical formulas.

Sl.NoChemical CompoundChemical Formula
1Acetic acid formulaCH3COOH
2Aluminium hydroxide Al(OH)3
3Acetate CH3COO¯
4Acetone C3H₆O
5Aluminium acetateC₆H₉AlO₆
6Aluminium bromide AlBr3
7Aluminium carbonate Al2(CO3)3
8Aluminium chloride AlCl3
9Aluminium fluoride AlF3
10Aluminium Al
11Aluminium iodide AlI3
12Aluminium oxide Al2O3
13Aluminium phosphateAlPO₄
14Amino acid H2NCHRCOOH
15Ammonia NH₄
16Ammonium dichromate Cr2H₈N2O₇
17Ammonium acetateC2H3O2NH₄
18Ammonium bicarbonateNH₄HCO3
19Ammonium bromideNH₄Br
20Ammonium carbonate (NH₄)2CO3
21Ammonium chloride NH₄Cl
22Ammonium hydroxide NH₄OH
23Ammonium iodide NH₄I
24Ammonium nitrate NH₄NO3
25Aluminium sulfideAl2S3
26Ammonium nitrite NH₄NO2
27Ammonium oxide (NH₄)2O
28Ammonium phosphate (NH₄)3PO₄
29Ammonium sulfate (NH₄)2SO₄
30Ammonium sulfide (NH₄)2S
31Argon gas Ar
32Ascorbic acid C₆H₈O₆
33Barium acetate Ba(C₂H3O2)2
34Barium bromide BaBr2
35Barium chlorideBaCl2
36Barium fluoride BaF2
37Barium hydroxide Ba(OH)2
38Barium iodide BaI2
39Barium nitrateBa(NO3)2
40Barium oxide BaO
41Barium phosphateBa3O₈P2
42Barium sulfate BaSO₄
43Benzene C₆H₆
44Benzoic acid C₇H₆O2
45Bicarbonate CHO3¯
46Bleach NaClO
47Boric acid H3BO3
48Potassium BromateKBrO3
49Bromic acid HBrO3
50Bromine Br
51Butane C₄H₁₀
52Butanoic acid C₄H₈O2
53Calcium acetate C₄H₆CaO₄
54Calcium bromide CaBr2
55Calcium carbonate CaCO3
56Calcium hydride CaH2
57Calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2
58Calcium iodide CaI2
59Calcium nitrateCa(NO3)2
60Calcium oxide CaO
61Carbon monoxide CO
62Carbon tetrachloride CCl₄
63Carbonic acid H2CO3
64Calcium phosphate Ca3(PO₄)2
65Carbonic acid H2CO3
66Citric acid C₆H₈O₇
67Chlorate ClO3¯
68Chlorine Cl
69Chlorine gas Cl2
70Chlorous acid HClO2
72Chromic acidH2CrO₄
73Citric acid C₆H₈O₇
74Copper ii carbonate CuCO3
75Copper ii nitrate Cu(NO3)2
76Cyanide CN¯
78Dihydrogen monoxideOH2
79Dinitrogen monoxide N2O
80Dinitrogen pentoxideN2O₅
81Dinitrogen trioxide N2O3
82Ethanol C2H₅OH
83Iron oxideFe2O3
84Ethylene glycolC2H₆O2
85Fluorine gas F2
86Aluminium bromideAlBr3
87Aluminium sulphideAl2S3
88Ammonium carbonate(NH₄)2CO3
89Ammonium nitrate(NH₄)(NO3)
90Ammonium phosphate(NH₄)3PO₄
91Barium chloride BaCl2
92Barium sulphateBaSO₄
93Calcium nitrateCa(NO3)2
94Carbon monoxideCO
95Carbon tetrachlorideCCl₄
96Carbonic acidH2CO3
97Hydrofluoric acid HF
98Hydroiodic acidHI
99Hypochlorous acid HClO
100Lithium phosphate Li3PO₄
101Magnesium nitrate MgNO3
102Magnesium phosphate Mg3(PO₄)2
103Nitrogen monoxide NO
104Nitrous acid HNO2
105Potassium carbonate K2CO3
106Potassium iodide KI
107Potassium nitrate KNO3
108Potassium phosphate KH2PO₄
109Sodium carbonate Na2CO₄
110Sodium oxide Na2O
111Fructose chemical C₆H₁2O₆
112Glycerol C3H₈O3
113Helium gas He
114Hexane C₆H₁₄
115Hydrobromic acid HBr
116Hydrochloric acid HCl
117Hydrocyanic acid HCN
118Hydrofluoric acidHF
119Hydrogen carbonate CHO3¯
120Hydrogen gas H2
121Hydrogen peroxide H2O2
122Hydrogen phosphate H3PO₄
123Hydrogen sulphate HSO₄¯
124Hydroiodic acid HI
125Hydrosulfuric acid H2SO₄
126Hydroxide OH¯
127Hypobromous acid HBrO
128Hypochlorite NaClO
129Hypochlorous acid HClO
130Hypoiodous acid HIO
131Iodic acid HIO3
133Iodine I₂
134Iron iii nitrate Fe(NO3)3
135Iron ii oxide FeO
136Iron iii carbonate Fe2(CO3)3
137Iron iii hydroxide Fe(OH)3
138Iron iii oxide Fe2O3
139Iron iii chloride FeCl3
140Lactic acid C3H6O3
141Lead acetate Pb(C2H3O2)2
142Lead ii acetate Pb(C2H3O2)2
143Lead iodide PbI2
144Lead iv oxide PbO2
145Lead nitrate Pb(NO3)2
146Lithium bromideLiBr
147Lithium chlorideLiCl2
148Lithium hydroxide LiOH
149Lithium iodide LiI
150Lithium oxide Li2O
151Lithium phosphate Li3PO4
152Magnesium acetate Mg(CH3COO)2
153Magnesium bicarbonate C2H2MgO6
154Magnesium carbonate MgCO3
155Magnesium chlorideMgCl2
156Magnesium hydroxideMg(OH)2
157Magnesium iodideMgI2
158Magnesium nitrateMg(NO3)2
159Magnesium nitride Mg3N2
160Magnesium carbonate MgCO3
161Magnesium bromide MgBr2
162Magnesium oxide MgO
163Magnesium phosphate Mg3(PO4)2
164Magnesium sulphate MgSO4
165Magnesium sulphide MgS
166Methane CH4
167Methanol CH3OH
168Nickel acetate Ni(C2H3O2)2
169Nickel nitrate Ni(NO3)2
170Nitric acid HNO3
171Nitride N3–
172Nitrite NO2−
173Nitrogen dioxide NO2
174Nitrogen monoxide NO
175Nitrous acid HNO2
176Oxalate C2O42¯
177Oxalic acid H2C2O4
178Oxygen O2
179Ozone O3
180Perbromic acid HBrO4
181Potassium Permanganate KMnO4
182Permanganate ion MnO4–
183Phosphate PO43-
184Sodium hydrogen phosphate Na2HPO4
185Sodium formate CHNaO2
186Phosphoric acid H3PO4
187Phosphorus pentachloride PCl5
188Phosphorus trichloride PCl3
189Potassium acetate CH3CO2K
190Potassium bicarbonate KHCO3
191Potassium carbonate K2CO3
192Potassium chlorate KClO3
193Potassium hydrogen phosphate K2HPO4
194Potassium chloride KCl
195Potassium chromate CrK2O4
196Potassium cyanide KCN
197Potassium dichromate K2Cr2O7
198Potassium fluoride KF
199Potassium hydroxide KOH
200Potassium hypochlorite KClO

Physics Formulas and Chemistry Formulas (FAQs)

Q: Why are formulas important in physics and chemistry?

A: Formulas are essential in physics and chemistry as they provide concise representations of relationships and principles within these disciplines. They allow scientists and students to calculate and predict various physical and chemical phenomena, solving problems and understanding the underlying concepts.

Q: How can I effectively learn and remember physics and chemistry formulas?

A: Here are a few strategies:
Understand the concepts behind the formulas instead of memorizing them blindly.
Practice applying the formulas to solve numerical problems and real-world scenarios.
Create summary sheets or flashcards with the formulas and review them regularly.
Use mnemonic devices or visualization techniques to associate formulas with memorable cues.
Seek out resources like textbooks, online tutorials, or educational platforms that provide explanations and examples.

Q: Are there any common misconceptions about using formulas in physics and chemistry?

A: One common misconception is that formulas are merely equations to be memorized without understanding their significance. However, it’s crucial to grasp the underlying principles and concepts associated with each formula to use them effectively. Another misconception is that formulas are rigid and unchanging, whereas they are often derived or modified based on new scientific discoveries and advancements.

Q: How can I apply physics and chemistry formulas to real-life situations?

A: Physics and chemistry formulas find practical applications in numerous real-life scenarios. For example, physics formulas are used in engineering for designing structures, calculating forces, and analyzing motion. In chemistry, formulas aid in determining chemical reactions, quantifying amounts of substances, and understanding the behavior of compounds in various conditions. By understanding and applying these formulas, you can better comprehend the world around you.

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