The Hindu Editorial (Ageing revolution) 13 February 2019

The Hindu Editorial with Vocabulary

The Hindu Editorial (Ageing revolution) 13 February 2019

Ageing revolution: on discontent in Iran

Iran has concluded the formal celebrations of the 40th anniversary of the Islamic revolution at a time when the regime is under serious global, regional and domestic pressure. The theocratic regime, established by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini in 1979, struck a defiant note by mobilising a huge rally in Tehran and repeating its familiar anti-West rhetoric. But Iran’s leaders are under pressure with a weak economy and social tensions rising at a time when U.S. President Donald Trump is becoming increasingly hostile towards Tehran. The fact that the Islamic Republic has survived four decades is telling. Over these years, Iran saw an eight-year-long war with Iraq, near-total isolation in West Asia, and economic hardships. The Iranian regime turned some of these challenges into opportunities — as in the case of the 1980-88 Iran-Iraq war — and made substantial changes in certain sectors. For example, the investments made in education and health care have seen positive results. As of 2015, the literacy rate among Iran’s adult population was 93%. More than 60% of university students in Iran are women. Access to health care has also improved for large sections of society.

 

But even as the Islamic Republic holds strong, discontent has risen. When Iran signed the multilateral nuclear deal in 2015, the Tehran elite hoped it would allow the country to join the global economic and diplomatic mainstream. President Hassan Rouhani banked on increased investments to bolster the economy. But the détente between the U.S. and Iran ended as soon as Mr. Trump became U.S. President. The Trump administration pulled the U.S. out of the nuclear deal and reimposed sanctions on Tehran. The U.S. has also joined hands with Iran’s rivals, such as Saudi Arabia, to scuttle the country’s regional ambitions, while Israel is repeatedly bombing Iranian positions within Syria. Within Iran, the regime is facing repeated protests as economic hardships mount. After the 2009 Green Movement, which was suppressed brutally, there were widespread anti-government demonstrations in 2017-18. Women came out against the mandatory headscarf in recent months, challenging religious orthodoxy. The Iranian state responded typically — an Amnesty report says “a shameless campaign of repression” was unleashed in 2018, resulting in the arrest of more than 7,000 protesters. Tehran’s criticism of foreign intervention has some merit. American sanctions will only multiply Iran’s economic woes. Tehran will have to deal with the U.S.’s unilateral and hostile policies with help from other countries. But it should also fix its system, tackle corruption and hold government departments accountable for the decisions they take. It is also time for the government, which is celebrating the anniversary of the fall of a despotic monarch, to rethink its approach towards dissent and personal freedoms.

 

The Hindu Editorial Vocabulary Wordlist

1) REVOLUTION (Noun)  = Drastic Action or Change, ( क्रान्ति )
Synonyms =  Innovation, Mutiny.
Antonyms = Harmony, Stagnation.

2) REGIME (Noun)  = Leadership of Organization, ( शासन पद्वति )
Synonyms =  Administration, Management.
Antonyms = Disorder, chaos.

3) Theocratic (Adj)  = Pastoral, ( धर्मशासित )
Synonyms =  Clerical, Priestly.
Antonyms = Urban , Metropolitan.

4) RHETORIC  (Noun) = Oratory, ( व्याख्यान विद्या )
Synonyms =  Elocution, Bombast.
Antonyms = Quiet, Conciseness.

5) ISOLATION (Noun) = Seclusion, ( एकाकीपन )
Synonyms = Confinement, Desolation.
Antonyms = Amalgamation, Alliance.

6) SCUTTLE (Verb)  = Destroy, ( कोयला रखने की टोकरी )
Synonyms =  Abandon, Sink.
Antonyms = Dawdle, Crawl.

7) INTERVENTION (Noun) = The Act of Intervening, ( हस्तक्षेप )
Synonyms =  Interference, Mediation.
Antonyms = Nonintervention, Interference.

 

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