Gerunds and Infinitives Uses

Gerunds and Infinitives Uses

Gerunds and Infinitives Uses

 

What are Gerunds.?

A gerund is a verb in its ing (present participle) form that functions as a noun that names an activity rather than a person or thing. Any action verb can be made into a gerund.
Spelling Tip
Verbing (Present Participle)Add ing to most verbs. Ex. play > playing, cry > crying, bark > barking

  • For verbs that end in e, remove the e and add ing. Ex: slide > sliding, ride > riding
    For verbs that end in ie, change the ie to y and add ing. Ex: die > dying, tie > tying
    For a verb whose last syllable is written with a consonant-vowel-consonant and is stressed, double the last letter before adding ing. Ex: beg > begging, begin > beginning. However: enter > entering (the last syllable is not stressed)

A gerund is an -ing verb form used as a noun.

Like a verb, a gerund can take objects and be modified by adverbs and adverbial phrases, but its function in a sentence is to serve as a noun–a noun that ends in -ing.
What do nouns do? Nouns are used as the following parts of a sentence:
1. Subject
2. Direct Object
3. Subject Complement
4. An object of a Preposition
Anything a noun can do, a gerund can do–because a gerund is a noun. A gerund is a noun that ends in -ing. Gerunds may be used alone or as part of a phrase.

What are Infinitives?

An infinitive is a verb form that acts as other parts of speech in a sentence. It is formed with to + base form of the verb.
Ex: to buy, to work.
An infinitive is a phrase, consisting of the word to and the basic form of a verb, that functions as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb.

Here’s a discussion of the five types of infinitives.

1. Subject
An infinitive can constitute the subject of a sentence. For example, in “To go, even after all that trouble, didn’t seem worthwhile anymore,” “to go” is the action that drives the sentence.

2. Direct Object
In the sentence “We all want to see,” “to see” is the direct object, the noun (or noun substitute) that receives the action of the verb. “To see” refers to a thing being done — or, in this case, desired to be done: the act of seeing.

3. Subject Complement
In “My goal is to write,” “to write” is the subject complement. A subject complement looks just like a direct object, but the difference is in the type of verb preceding it. The verb in the previous example, want, is a transitive verb. (Transitive verbs have two defining characteristics: They precede a direct object, and they express an action.)
In “My goal is to write,” the verb is a popular or linking, verb — one that links a subject to a word or phrase that complements it. (In this sentence, “to write” is the goal, so it’s the complement of a goal. Note that in the previous example, “to see” is what those referred to as we want, but it’s not the complement of we.)

4. Adjective
In “She didn’t have permission to go,” “to go” modifies permission — it describes what type of permission is being discussed — so the phrase serves as an adjective.

5. Adverb
In “He took the psychology class to try to understand human behavior,” “to understand (human behavior)” explains why the taking of the class occurred, so it’s an adverb modifying the verb took.

Gerunds and Infinitives Uses

Verb +
Gerund
Verb
+Preposition
+Gerund
Be
+Adjective
+Preposition
+Gerund
Verb +
Infinitive
Verb
+Infinitive or
Gerund
I advise
studying
gerunds
I have adapted to
living in the U.S.
I am capable of
learning English
grammar.
I aim to
master the
infinitive.
I began learning
English 10 years
ago.
I began to learn
English 10 years
ago.
acknowledge
admit
advise
anticipate
appreciate
avoid
consider
defend
defer
delay
deny
detest
discuss
dislike
endure
enjoy
escape
excuse
feel like
finish
go
imagine
involve
keep
mention
mind (object to)
miss
omit
postpone
practice
prevent
quit
recall
recollect
recommend
regret
resent
resist
resume
risk
suggest
tolerate
understand
adapt to
adjust to
agree on
apologize for
approve of
argue about
ask about
believe in
blame for
care about
complain about
consist of
decide on
depend on
disapprove of
discourage from
engage in
forgive for
give up
help with
inquire about
insist on
interfere with
keep on
look forward to
object to
participate in
persist in
plan on
prepare for
profit from
prohibit from
put off
result from
succeed in
suffer from
talk about
take part in
there’s no point in
think about
warn about
work on
worry about
be accustomed to
be afraid of
be angry about
be ashamed of
be capable of
be certain about
be concerned with
be critical of
be discouraged
from
be enthusiastic
about
be familiar with
be famous for
be fond of
be glad about
be good at
be happy about
be interested in
be known for
be nervous about
be perfect for
be proud of
be responsible for
be sad about
be successful in
be suitable for
be tired of
be tolerant of
be upset about
be used to
be useful for
be worried about
agree
aim
afford
appear
arrange
ask
care
choose
claim
consent
dare
decide
decline
demand
deserve
desire
expect
fail
guarantee
happen
hope
intend
know
learn
manage
need
offer
plan
pledge
prepare
pretend
promise
refuse
resolve
seem
tend
struggle
swear
volunteer
wait
want
wish
would like
attempt
begin
can/can’t bear
can/can’t stand
cease
continue
forget
go on
hate
like
love
neglect
prefer
regret
propose
remember
see
start
stop
try

 

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